Blood (7/22/11)

  1. (From (6/23/11) Reddish brown stains that have been said to include whole blood are found on the cloth, showing various wounds that, according to proponents, correlate with the yellowish image, the pathophysiology of crucifixion, and the Biblical description of the death of Jesus:[10] Markings on the lines include:[11]
    • one wrist bears a large, round wound, claimed to be from piercing (the second wrist is hidden by the folding of the hands)
    • upward gouge in the side penetrating into the thoracic cavity. Proponents claim this was a post-mortem event and there are separate components of red blood cells and serum draining from the lesion
    • small punctures around the forehead and scalp
    • scores of linear wounds on the torso and legs. Proponents claim that the wounds are consistent with the distinctive dumbbell wounds of a Roman flagrum.
    • swelling of the face from severe beatings
    • streams of blood down both arms. Proponents claim that the blood drippings from the main flow occurred in response to gravity at an angle that would occur during crucifixion
    • no evidence of either leg being fractured
    • large puncture wounds in the feet as if pierced by a single spike

  2. (From (6/23/11)There are several reddish stains on the shroud suggesting blood, but is uncertain whether these stains were produced at the same time as the image, or afterwards.[73] McCrone (see painting hypothesis) identified these as containing iron oxide, theorizing that its presence was likely due to simple pigment materials used in medieval times. Other researchers, including Alan Adler, identified the reddish stains as blood and interpreted the iron oxide as a natural residue of hemoglobin.
  3. Heller and Adler further studied the dark red stains and determined and identified hemoglobin, establishing, within claimed scientific certainty, the presence of porphyrin, bilirubin, albumin, and protein.[74] Working independently forensic pathologist Pier Luigi Baima Bollone, concurred with Heller and Adler's findings and identified the blood as AB blood group.[75] Subsequently, STURP sent blood flecks to the laboratory devoted to the study of ancient blood at the State University of New York (SUNY). Dr. Andrew Merriwether at SUNY stated that no blood typing could be confirmed, and the DNA was badly fragmented. He stated that it is almost certain that the blood spots are blood, but no definitive statements can be made about its nature or provenience, i.e., whether it is male and from the Near East."[76]
  4. Joe Nickell argues that results similar to Heller and Adler's could be obtained from tempera paint.[77] Skeptics also cite other forensic blood tests whose results dispute the authenticity of the Shroud[69] that the blood could belong to a person handling the shroud, and that the apparent blood flows on the shroud are unrealistically neat.[69][78][79]

  5. (6/23/11: Looking for citation) And why is the blood of the bloodstains red? It really is blood. That has been proven over and over by many scientists working independently of one another. Old blood normally turns black. The reasons it is red are simple. Ancient cloth, as it was manufactured in the the Middle East during the first century, was starched on the loom and then washed in suds of the Soapwort plant.Ingredients of this natural soap are hemolytic, which would keep the blood red. We know, as well, that the blood on the Shroud is rich in bilirubin, a bile pigment produced when a human body is under severe traumatic stress. Bilirubin is bright red and stays red.

  6. (6/23/11: Looking for citation - best guess is earlier Wikipedia account) According to the art historian Nicolas Allen the image on the shroud was formed by a photographic technique in the 13th century.[142] Allen maintains that techniques already available before the 14th century—e.g., as described in the Book of Optics, which was at just that time translated from Arabic to Latin—were sufficient to produce primitive photographs, and that people familiar with these techniques would have been able to produce an image as found on the shroud. To demonstrate this, he successfully produced photographic images similar to the shroud using only techniques and materials available at the time the shroud was made. He described his results in his PhD Thesis,[143] in papers published in several science journals,[144][145] and in a book.[146]
  7. However a double photographic exposure, needed in that case, should have considered the distances and in such case there would be areas of photographic superimposition with different lights and shades. The distances on Shroud instead correspond to the body position.[147]

Debate (7/22/11)

McCrone's Alleged Problems (2/8/11)

Other Evidence