Details (8/31/10)

 (Citations to follow...)

  1. Some of the details of the crucifixion do coincide with the narration of the Gospels. However, this depends on which part of which Gospel is taken, as much of the details are in contradiction with each other. For example, details on the Shroud do correspond to details of the Gospel of John, but this Gospel does not talk of a single burial cloth, but rather of “strips of linen” (New International Verson of the Bible) or “linen clothes” (King James Version). And one should also consider that an artist of the 14th century would probably have used material available to him, such as the Gospels or other paintings as inspiration for his piece of art.
  2. A number of studies on the anatomical consistency of the image on the shroud and the nature of the wounds on it have been performed, following the initial study by Yves Delage in 1902.[115] While Delage declared the image anatomically flawless, others have presented arguments to support both authenticity and forgery.
  3. In 1950 physician Pierre Barbet wrote a long study called A Doctor at Calvary which was later published as a book.[116] Barbet stated that his experience as a battlefield surgeon during World War I led him to conclude that the image on the shroud was authentic, anatomically correct and consistent with crucifixion. [117]
  4. In 1997 physician and forensic pathologist Robert Bucklin constructed a scenario of how a systematic autopsy on the man of the shroud would have been conducted. He noted the series of traumatic injuries which extend from the shoulder areas to the lower portion of the back, which he considered consistent with whipping; and marks on the right shoulder blade which he concluded were signs of carrying a heavy object. Bucklin concluded that the image was of a real person, subject to crucifixion.[118]
  5. For over a decade, medical examiner Frederick Zugibe performed a number of studies using himself and volunteers suspended from a cross, and presented his conclusions in a book in 1998.[119] Zugibe considers the shroud image and its proportions as authentic, but disagrees with Barbet and Bucklin on various details such as blood flow.[120] Zugibe concluded that the image on the shroud is of the body of a man, but that the body had been washed.[121]
  6. In 2001, Pierluigi Baima Bollone, a professor of forensic medicine in Turin, stated that the forensic examination of the wounds and bloodstains on the Shroud indicate that the image was that of the dead body of a man who was whipped, wounded around the head by a pointed instrument and nailed at the extremities before dying.[122]
  7. Artist Isabel Piczek stated in 1995 that while a general research opinion sees a flatly reclining body on the Shroud, the professional figurative artist can see substantial differences from a flatly reclining position. She stated that the professional arts cannot find discrepancies and distortions in the anatomy of the "Shroud Man".[123]
  8. Authors Joe Nickell, in 1983, and Gregory S. Paul in 2010, separately state that the proportions of the image are not realistic. Paul stated that the face and proportions of the shroud image are impossible, that the figure cannot represent that of an actual person and that the posture was inconsistent. They argued that the forehead on the shroud is too small; and that the arms are too long and of different lengths and that the distance from the eyebrows to the top of the head is non-representative. They concluded that the features can be explained if the shroud is a work of a Gothic artist.[124][125]
  9. Artist Lillian Schwartz, who had previously claimed to have matched the face of the Mona Lisa to a self-portrait of Leonardo da Vinci, stated in 2009 that the proportions of the face image on the shroud are correct, and that they match the dimensions of the face of da Vinci.[126]